The 12 January 2010 M w 7.0 earthquake in the Republic of Haiti caused an estimated 300,000 deaths, displaced more than a million people, and damaged nearly half of all structures in the epicentral area. [178], The helicopter carrier USS Bataan sailed with three large dock landing ships and two survey/salvage vessels, to create a "sea base" for the rescue effort. Seismol. NPR found that the project was riddled with "multiple staffing changes", bureaucratic delays and a language barrier, as many of the Red Cross officials spoke neither French nor Haitian Creole. [263] Amnesty International reported that armed men were preying with impunity on girls and women in displacement camps, worsening the trauma of victims who have lost homes, livelihoods and loved ones. The impact of a large magnitude earthquakes (M W > 7.0) and associated aftershocks can be devastating, for example, the 2011 Japan earthquake and Tsunami (Norio et al., 2011) or the Mw 7.0 earthquake in Haiti, 2010, ... Scott (2013) pointed out that it will cost the government of New Zealand $NZ 40 billion ($34 billion) to rebuilding Christchurch, following the February 2011 earthquake that claimed 185 people lives. [247], Six months after the quake as much as 98% of the rubble remained uncleared. "[160], An MSF aircraft carrying a field hospital was repeatedly turned away[161][162] by US air traffic controllers, who had assumed control at Toussaint L'Ouverture International Airport. The devastating M w 7.1 Haiti earthquake in 2010 occurred within the Caribbean-North America plate boundary, where oblique relative motion at 19 mm yr −1 is partitioned between shortening on the North Hispaniola fault to the north and strike-slip motion on the E-W-striking Septentrional and Enriquillo faults throughout the island ( Fig. The earthquakes on this conjugate system of strike-slip faults form a sequence that may have been triggered by the enhancement of stress on one fault as a result of slip on a neighbouring fault. Images and testimonials circulating after the earthquake across the internet and through social media helped to intensify the reaction of global engagement. [227], In addition to Canada's federal government, the governments of several of the provinces and territories of Canada also announced that they would provide immediate emergency aid to Haiti. earthquake was larger than Mw7.0, but probably smaller than The missionaries claimed they were rescuing orphaned children but investigations revealed that more than 20 of the children had been taken from their parents after they were told the children would have a better life in America. [45] There are concerns that the main earthquake could be the beginning of a new long-term sequence: "the whole region is fearful"; historical accounts, although not precise, suggest that there has been a sequence of quakes progressing westwards along the fault, starting with an earthquake in the Dominican Republic in 1751. [73] The Haitian art world suffered great losses; artworks were destroyed, and museums and art galleries were extensively damaged, among them Port-au-Prince's main art museum, Centre d'Art, College Saint Pierre and Holy Trinity Cathedral. By June the American Red Cross had transferred the rebuilding efforts to the Haitian Red Cross.[282]. The long rupture and large offsets with strong horizontal shortening that characterize the Wenchuan earthquake herald a re-evaluation of tectonic models anticipating little or no active shortening of the upper crust along this edge of the plateau, and require a re-assessment of seismic hazard along potentially under-rated active faults across the densely populated western Sichuan basin and mountains. Around 200 guests were killed in the collapse of the Hôtel Montana in Port-au-Prince. [139] Some online poker sites hosted poker tournaments with tournament fees, prizes or both going to disaster relief charities. [134] Members of social networking sites such as Twitter and Facebook spread messages and pleas to send help. [97][98] Dr Evan Lyon of Partners in Health, working at the General Hospital in Port-au-Prince, claimed that misinformation and overblown reports of violence had hampered the delivery of aid and medical services. We obtained 8 TSX and 7 ALOS scenes covering the eastern portion of the earthquake rupture area, from before and after the earthquake. On 22 January, the United Nations noted that the emergency phase of the relief operation was drawing to a close, and on the following day, the Haitian government officially called off the search for survivors. be the source of the 12 January 2010, Mw7.0 earthquake. Combined geodetic, geological and seismological data posited that surface deformation was driven by rupture on the Léogâne blind thrust fault, while part of the rupture occurred as deep lateral slip on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault (EPGF). Preliminary!Reconnaissance!Report! "[242], The Netherlands sponsored a project, called Radio555. However, oceanographically lowered sea levels, as in El Niños, may have determined the times when corals died and recorded these events. "[109] Edmond Mulet, UN Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, said, "I do not think we will ever know what the death toll is from this earthquake",[109] while the director of the Haitian Red Cross, Jean-Pierre Guiteau, noted that his organization had not had the time to count bodies, as their focus had been on the treatment of survivors. The lack of positive Coulomb-stress changes imposed by left-lateral, slip on fault A, and resolved onto the blind thrust fault B (Supple-, mentary Fig. To this end, the residential exposure of Guatemala and Guatemala City were used as case studies. [274][276] The United Nations peacekeeping force, widely believed responsible for the cholera outbreak,[258] continues to refuse to accept responsibility,[277] however, they have launched a $2.2 billion initiative to combat cholera and the construction of a $17 million teaching hospital in Mirebalais which will employ 800 Haitians and treat 185,000 people. The US Geological Survey (USGS) National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) located this earthquake at 18:44 N, 72:57 W, at a depth of 13km, with an origin time of 21:53:10 utc and a … [268] Watchdog groups have criticized the reconstruction process saying that part of the problem is that charities spent a considerable amount of money on "soaring rents, board members' needs, overpriced supplies and imported personnel," the Miami Herald reported. [40] An article published in Haiti's Le Matin newspaper in September 2008 cited comments by geologist Patrick Charles to the effect that there was a high risk of major seismic activity in Port-au-Prince. We argue that a combined effect of complex rupture dynamics and topography primarily control this previously rarely documented landslide pattern. We use satellite imagery, aerial The 26-member international Interim Haiti Reconstruction Commission, headed by Bill Clinton and Haitian Prime Minister Jean-Max Bellerive, convened in June 2010. 2010 Haiti earthquake, large-scale earthquake that occurred January 12, 2010, on the West Indian island of Hispaniola, comprising the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. A 7.0-magnitude earthquake, the largest ever recorded in the area, left much of the Port-au-Prince, Haiti, area in despair in January 2010. Credit: American Red Cross/AP Haiti 2010: Bodies in streets Countless dwellings were reduced to rubble, while hospitals, churches and schools collapsed and roads were blocked with debris. In this study we combine seismological, geologic, and geodetic data to provide a detailed characterization of the, earthquake source. Secondary shocks (aftershocks) hit … We observed uplift primarily using microatolls of the, and slumping of unconsolidated coastal deposits is superimposed, on the tectonically raised coast, causing complex patterns of, uplift overprinted with local subsidence (Fig. More than 10 aftershocks ranging from 5.0 to 5.9 in magnitude (none of magnitude larger than 6.0) struck the area in hours following the main shock. The M7.0 2010 Haiti earthquake along the Enriquillo Fault west of Port-Au-Prince, Haiti, ruptured a complex fault network including both strike-slip and reverse faults, ... /earthquakes /eventpage / usp000h60h/). 2013;Lovett 2010;Calais et al. The diffuse distribution of the, aftershocks, which are located primarily at the western margin, of the region of significant slip identified in this study and, the region of coseismic deformation imaged by interferometric, synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), suggests that most of these, events reflect triggered slip on minor faults that form part of, a complex fault system, rather than defining the mainshock, The InSAR-derived surface-deformation field demonstrates that. rupture was not confined to simple strike-slip on the EPGF. 3, fault B), called herein the Léogâne fault. [202] In an interview on 21 January, Leo Merores, Haiti's ambassador to the UN, said that he expected the port to be fully functional again within two weeks. [106] On the first anniversary of the earthquake, 12 January 2011, Haitian Prime Minister Jean-Max Bellerive said the death toll from the quake was more than 316,000, raising the figures from previous estimates. [47], The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center issued a tsunami warning immediately after the initial quake,[48] but quickly cancelled it. [10] Death toll estimates range from 100,000[4] to about 160,000[6] to Haitian government figures from 220,000[11][12] to 316,000,[4] although these latter figures are a matter of some dispute. Hypersaline conditions dominated the early part of the record (~ 800 to 900 CE), and we infer a freshening of lagoonal waters and the subsequent expansion of the mangrove community following an extreme wave event that occurred some time before ~ 1290 to 1400 CE. This plate boundary is dominated by left-lateral strike slip motion and compression with 2 cm/year of slip velocity eastward with respect to the North America plate. [10] In mid February 2010, the Haitian government reported the death toll to have reached 230,000. Mati Goldstein, head of the Israeli ZAKA International Rescue Unit delegation to Haiti, described the situation as "Shabbat from hell. Numerous government structures were heavily damaged or destroyed, including the presidential palace, parliament building and main prison. This out-of-sequence event, with distributed surface breaks on crustal mega-thrusts, highlights regional, ~EW-directed, present day crustal shortening oblique to the Longmen Shan margin of Tibet. Additional discontinuities appear in the upper mantle beneath PAPH (60.1 km depth), PCDR (Punta Cana; 60 km), SDD (Santo Domingo; 70 km), and SC01 (Santiago; 81 km). Amongst the widespread devastation and damage throughout Port-au-Prince and elsewhere, vital infrastructure necessary to respond to the disaster was severely damaged or destroyed. This paper is Caltech Tectonic Observatory contribution 138. An exact death toll proved elusive in the ensuing chaos. [44] USGS reported its epicenter was about 56 km (35 mi) WSW of Port-au-Prince,[42] which would place it almost exactly under the coastal town of Petit-Goâve. On January 12, 2010, a Mw7.0 earthquake struck the Port-au-Prince region of Haiti killing more than 200,000 people, leaving more than 1.5 million homeless, and destroying most governmental, technical, and educational infrastructure throughout this region of 3 million people. The unreleased report, which compiled its figures from a door-to-door survey, was done by a Washington consulting firm, LTL Strategies. The earthquake was initially thought to have ruptured the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault of the southern PALSAR data, were provided to T.I. [273], According to the International Monetary Fund, more than half of the 10,000,000 cubic metres (13,000,000 cu yd) of debris have been removed, and 20% of it has been recycled. Partitioning this, total area by the same ratio with which moment release is resolved, into horizontal and vertical components, this time is approximately, 250 years. We here present background information about the properties of moment tensors and examples of moment tensor analysis. [89] Mass graves were dug in a large field outside the settlement of Titanyen, north of the capital; tens of thousands of bodies were reported as having been brought to the site by dump truck and buried in trenches dug by earth movers. Although the location of the epicenter and preliminary seismologic data suggested the earthquake was likely due to slip on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden Fault zone (EPGFZ), more detailed analysis and modeling of data show that, The Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone is recognized as one of the Future earthquake risk in Haiti: Startling images of ground motion help scientists understand risk of aftershocks. Here, the EPGFZ has an average strike of 085 degrees and a near-surface dip of 60-80 degrees south, which contrasts with the 50 degree north-dipping modeled fault for the 12 January earthquake. The 2010 Haiti earthquake: A complex fault pattern constrained ... on the size and geometry of a ruptured area and on the state ... 2010, rupture, or if it is only a recent deformation. [165] Aid workers blamed US-controlled airport operations for prioritising the transportation of security troops over rescuers and supplies;[101] evacuation policies favouring citizens of certain nations were also criticised. Witnesses told reporters that the sea first retreated and a "very big wave" followed rapidly, crashing ashore and sweeping boats and debris into the ocean.[50]. During Haiti's time as a French colony, earthquakes were recorded by French historian Moreau de Saint-Méry (1750–1819). S6c), in which slip on fault B triggers motion on fault A, unclamping, the deep section of fault A to slip with left-lateral motion, and, Léogâne earthquake, as a percentage of the moment accumulated since 177, and C correlate to the steeply south-dipping EPGF fault trace, the mor. [27], The magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake occurred inland, on 12 January 2010 at 16:53 (UTC−05:00), approximately 25 km (16 mi) WSW from Port-au-Prince at a depth of 13 km (8.1 mi)[7] on blind thrust faults associated with the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault system[28] and lasted less than 30 seconds. [67][68] The Prison Civile de Port-au-Prince was also destroyed, allowing around 4,000 inmates to escape. and R.W.B. In addition, 39 trucks carrying canned food were dispatched, along with 10 mobile kitchens and 110 cooks capable of producing 100,000 meals per day.[123]. The song was later chosen as Coca-Cola's promotional anthem for the 2010 FIFA World Cup hosted by South Africa. Most donors provided funds for transitional housing but very little money for clearing rubble or repairing houses". Because the geologic signature of this earthquake involves broad warping and coastal deformation rather than surface rupture along the main fault zone, the event will not leave a distinct geologic signal that will be easily recognized by standard paleoseismic studies. future analyses of other transpressional tectonic regimes worldwide. [153], From 12 January, the International Committee of the Red Cross, which has been working in Haiti since 1994, focused on bringing emergency assistance to victims of the catastrophe. The strike-slip fault [258] Cholera most often affects poor countries with limited access to clean water and proper sanitation. First, all moment-tensor, solutions by NEIC and the global centroid moment tensor have, a significant non-double couple component (as measured by, the compensated linear vector dipole ratio, 0.16 and 0.22 for the three solutions discussed above), indicative, of a complex source composed of two or more subevents on, non-parallel fault structures or in non-synchronous ruptures, Second, a single-plane finite fault model (Supplementary Fig. As rescues tailed off, supplies, medical care and sanitation became priorities. Several lines of seismological evidence show the complex nature, of the 2010 Léogâne earthquake rupture. Our combined geologic field observations, space geodetic measurements, and seismologic data show that the rupture process of this event, The catastrophic M 7.0 Léogâne earthquake of 12 January 2010 in Haiti highlighted the hazard associated with the Caribbean-North American plate boundary in Hispaniola. [29] In this area, Miocene to Quaternary wrench structures of the lower plate, like the Southern Peninsula and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden faults, are reactivated as normal faults, owing to the loading of the fold-and-thrust belt. Both data and synthetic seismograms are transformed into wavelets, which are then separated into several groups based on their frequency content. The principal rupture, on the NW-dipping Beichuan fault, displays nearly equal amounts of thrust and right-lateral slip. Fox said that in many instances rubble removal "means it was [moved] off someone's property onto the road in front of the property". 3. "[94][95], Slow distribution of resources in the days after the earthquake resulted in sporadic violence, with looting reported. The tectonic, complexity of this earthquake also provides important lessons for. The January 12th, 2010, M = 7.0 Haiti earthquake was one of the worst natural disasters of the past century. [151] Treatment of the injured was hampered by the lack of hospital and morgue facilities: the Argentine military field hospital, which had been serving MINUSTAH, was the only one available until 13 January. Engineers have stated that it is unlikely many buildings would have stood through any kind of disaster. They call for more oversight of accountability of reconstruction plans, asking, "Why have only 94,000 transitional shelters been built to date despite a stated goal of 125,000 in the first year? [7][8], By 24 January, at least 52 aftershocks measuring 4.5 or greater had been recorded. Previous studies have described the shallow structure and stratigraphy of the island but, due to a dearth of broadband seismic data, little is known about the lower crust and mantle. I can only think that their priority must be somewhere else. The broad uplift bulge north of the EPGF (Fig. PALSAR level 1.0 data are shared among PIXEL, (PALSAR Interferometry Consortium to Study our Evolving Land Surface), and, provided from the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency under a cooperative research, contract with the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo. limited shear strain across the broad EPGF system (Fig. Findings-The paper highlighted the significant factors affecting code compliance and why some parties find compliance difficult to achieve. Deformation and slip along the Sunda megathrust in the. The disaster killed more than 200,000 people and caused an estimated $8 billion in damages, about 100% of the country’s gross domestic product1. line of zero uplift in Petit Goâve identified by field geologic studies. 15% of the camps had no basic protection services,[clarification needed] and 48% no health services. [42] Within the first nine hours, 32 aftershocks of magnitude 4.2 or greater were recorded, 12 of which measured magnitude 5.0 or greater; in addition, on 24 January, the US Geological Survey reported that there had been 52 aftershocks measuring 4.5 or greater since the main quake. This study focuses on exploring and quantifying the impact of a number of sources of uncertainties from each component of an earthquake loss model to the loss estimates. The 2010 Haiti earthquake (French: Séisme de 2010 à Haïti; Haitian Creole: Tranblemanntè 12 janvye 2010 nan peyi Ayiti) was a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 M w earthquake, with an epicenter near the town of Léogâne and approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) west of Port-au-Prince, Haiti's capital. are partially supported under, funds provided by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through the Tectonics, Observatory. Alaska, earthquake and implications for rapid strong motion estimation. Probabilistic earthquake loss models are widely used in the (re)insurance industry to assess the seismic risk of portfolios of assets and to inform pricing mechanisms for (re)insurance contracts, as well as by international and national organizations with the remit to assess and reduce disaster risk. [266] Venezuela and the US, which promised the major share of reconstruction funds, have disbursed only 24% and 30%, respectively. Government crews manned trucks to collect thousands more, burying them in mass graves. Combined geodetic, geological and seismological data posited that surface deformation was driven by rupture on the Léogâne blind thrust fault, while part of the rupture occurred as deep lateral slip on the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden Fault … [18][19], Many countries responded to appeals for humanitarian aid, pledging funds and dispatching rescue and medical teams, engineers and support personnel. The nations capital, Port-au-Prince, a densely populated city located about 15 miles from the quakes epicenter, suffered widespread devastation. [278][279], By the beginning of the year only a small part—$215 million—of the total funds collected for aid had been spent on permanent housing, with most of it—$1.2 billion—going for short-term solutions including tent camps, temporary shelters, and cash grants that paid a year's rent. He described damage done by an earthquake in 1751, writing that "only one masonry building had not collapsed" in Port-au-Prince; he also wrote that the "whole city collapsed" in the 1770 Port-au-Prince earthquake. [13] The deputy mayor of Léogâne reported that 90% of the town's buildings had been destroyed. The American Red Cross announced on 13 January that it had run out of supplies in Haiti and appealed for public donations. 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