Interactions between charged particles generated from Io and the planet's strong magnetic field likely resulted in redistribution of heat flow, forming the Spot. Saturn was named after the Roman god of agriculture. EJSM/Laplace would have consisted of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter. [82][83] The storm is large enough to be visible through Earth-based telescopes with an aperture of 12 cm or larger. Because the eccentricity of its orbit is 0.048, Jupiter is slightly over 75 million km nearer the sun at perihelion than aphelion. This moon was later named Amalthea. The Romans called it "the star of Jupiter" (Iuppiter Stella), as they believed it to be sacred to the principal god of Roman mythology, whose name comes from the Proto-Indo-European vocative compound *Dyēu-pəter (nominative: *Dyēus-pətēr, meaning "Father Sky-God", or "Father Day-God"). The plasma in the sheet co-rotates with the planet, causing deformation of the dipole magnetic field into that of a magnetodisk. Jupiter lies pretty close to the limit of what we’d call a gas giant. During the mission, the spacecraft will be exposed to high levels of radiation from Jupiter's magnetosphere, which may cause future failure of certain instruments and risk collision with Jupiter's moons. [148], Jupiter has 79 known natural satellites. They, together with hydrogen ions originating from the atmosphere of Jupiter, form a plasma sheet in Jupiter's equatorial plane. [113], During the 1660s, Giovanni Cassini used a new telescope to discover spots and colorful bands on Jupiter and observed that the planet appeared oblate; that is, flattened at the poles. [186] The Chinese, Vietnamese, Koreans and Japanese called it the "wood star" (Chinese: 木星; pinyin: mùxīng), based on the Chinese Five Elements. Q: Is Jupiter a failed star? [7][43] Jupiter's radius is about one tenth the radius of the Sun,[44] and its mass is one thousandth the mass of the Sun, so the densities of the two bodies are similar. Ζῆν᾽ ὕπατον μήστωρ᾽, οὐδ᾽ εἰ μάλα πολλὰ κάμοιτε. Why does Jupiter have a magnetic field? [135], The first spacecraft to orbit Jupiter was the Galileo probe, which entered orbit on December 7, 1995. The Great Tours: England, Scotland, and Wales, Saturn and the rings: gravity’s masterpiece, The Discovery of Black Holes: From Theory to Actuality, Ancient Astronomy—From Stonehenge to the Great Pyramids: The Torch Podcast, Large Earthlike Planet Could Have Life-Sustaining Qualities. As we get closer to the planet, even more details become visible in the atmosphere, resulting from turbulent winds, storms, and clouds. It's just that, being a gas giant, it has really low density: around 1.33 grams per cubic centimetre; Earth's density, at 5.51 grams per cubic centimetre, is just over four times higher than that of Jupiter. As a result, Jupiter is thought to have about as large a diameter as a planet of its composition and evolutionary history can achieve. [43][131], Six years later, the Voyager missions vastly improved the understanding of the Galilean moons and discovered Jupiter's rings. And like its other fellow Gas Giants, it is also a massive planet composed of helium and hydrogen. Therefore, Jovian describes the other giant planets as being Jupiter-like. The tidal force from Jupiter, on the other hand, works to circularize their orbits. [48] The recorded temperature was more than 300 °C (>570 °F) and the windspeed measured more than 644 km/h (>400 mph) before the probes vapourised. [157][158], Jupiter has a faint planetary ring system composed of three main segments: an inner torus of particles known as the halo, a relatively bright main ring, and an outer gossamer ring. There are also traces of carbon, ethane, hydrogen sulfide, neon, oxygen, phosphine, and sulfur. Jupiter, like the other gas giants, doesn’t have a rocky surface, but that doesn’t mean it’s just a massive cloud floating through the vacuum of space. [167] The largest is 624 Hektor. Nine spacecraft have studied Jupiter up close. Jupiter is a gas giant, which means it is huge, but it is made of gas, and there is no hard surface to land or stand on. One day after Galileo, Simon Marius independently discovered moons around Jupiter, though he did not publish his discovery in a book until 1614. They found that, while the Spot changes size, shape and intensity over the short term, it has maintained its general position in the atmosphere across more than 15 years of available data. [72] These discharges carry "mushballs" of water-ammonia slushes covered in ice, which fall deep into the atmosphere. This tour of Jupiter’s layers is very interesting: For the interior of Jupiter, let’s imagine taking a descent from cloud-tops down to the core based on our best guesses of what lies below. The extreme pressures and temperatures deep inside the planet crush, melt and vaporize spacecraft trying to fly into the planet. Supporting the idea of water clouds are the flashes of lightning detected in the atmosphere of Jupiter. These electrical discharges can be up to a thousand times as powerful as lightning on Earth. Jupiter is the biggest planet in our solar system. [146] A subsequent proposal was developed for a joint NASA/ESA mission called EJSM/Laplace, with a provisional launch date around 2020. The planet is shaped as an oblate spheroid, meaning that the diameter across its equator is longer than the diameter measured between its poles. This depletion is a result of precipitation of these elements into the interior of the planet. However, the planet is huge enough to contain other elements as well, such as oxygen and carbon. A gaseous giant as it is called, Jupiter, is made from the mass left after the formation of the sun, weighing one-thousandth the mass of the sun. 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