Creation of variability through pollination and artificial hybridization is very difficult as the flowers are cleistogamous. I. Autogamy Transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma of same flower is known as autogamy or self pollination. In Vigna species, early generation (F 1 and F 2 ) hybrid progenies derived from hybridization of distantly-related genotypes always possesses pods with incomplete filled (empty seeds in some locules) [49. National productivity of black gram is alarmingly remaining around 500 kg/ha (Pawar, 2001). Pollinated pistils were treated with gibberellic acid (GA3) (70 p.p.m.) A true-breeding black gram (Vigna mungo) × green gram (Vigna radiata) derivative was reciprocally crossed with adzuki bean, Vigna angularis. Comparison of domestication-related QTLs of the zombi pea with those of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), azuki bean (Vigna angularis), mungbean (Vigna radiata) and rice bean (Vigna umbellata) revealed that there was conservation of some QTLs for seed size, pod size and leaf size between zombi pea and cowpea and that QTLs associated with seed size (weight, length, width and thickness) in each species were clustered on same linkage. ISSD Myanmar organized this training with the cooperation of Department of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Research and WHH. Crossing between a Cultivar of the Green Gram and a Semi-Wild Relative of the Adzuki Bean, in Endemic Name “Bakaso”, Interspecific Hybridization in the Genus Phaseolus1, Interspecific crossability among four species of Vigna food legumes, Influence of different shades of light on pollination, seed set and seedling behaviour in mulberry. 2007, 2008; Hee et al. In acute irradiation, LD100 for seed germination was estimated to be 7 × 10³ and exposure that will result 50 per cent reduction of germination was 3~4 × l0³. Since three of the five QTLs, including the largest effect QTL, detected for SDNPPD were mapped to genome regions that showed high segregation distortion, those QTLs may be associated with genetic compatibility and fertility, and thus seed production. Working off-campus? Using one of the hybrids, Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile, as a model system, methods for in vitro flowering and in vitro pollination are described. Centre, Shanhua, 247Ð252. Tuber traits were controlled by five QTLs with similar effect locating on different linkage groups. A good gram crop in case of desi (black varieties) gives an output of 15 to 20 quintals yield per hectare and in case of Kabuli varieties gives about 25 to 30 quintals yield per hectare. and Devel. Key words : Black gram, EMS, gamma rays, germination, survival, pollen sterility. 24 and 48 h after pollination. Main improved attributes of mutant variety are early maturity, errect, photosensitive and determinate type. However, high incidence of insect pests in these crops is a major constraint in achieving their potential productivity and resulting in yield instability over the years. Seedling development is described from seed germination to the establishment of several leaves on the seedling. Given the wide crossability of V. umbellata, the hybrid can be a valuable genetic resource to improve drought tolerance of some domesticated species. Valued for their grains with high and easily digestible proteins, these crops are also known as forage, green manure, and cover crops. This method was successfully used for Cicer arietinum L. and C. pinnatifidum L. Hybrid plants derived from Vigna mungo (black gram) and Vigna radiata (green gram) were favoured by the treatment of pistil with gibberellic acid (GA3), (Kaufmane and Rumpunen, 2002) up to 48 hours after pollination (, ... Vigna radiata × V. mungo Verma and Singh (1986), Ravi et al. Black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) is an erect, fast-growing annual, herbaceous legume reaching 30-100 cm in height. Genus Vigna comprise several domesticated species including cowpea and mungbean, and diverse wild species. . Anther position. Peak flowering activity coincided with leaf fall/leaf flushing , possibly to attract pollinators. percentage showed significant difference between the clones but no significant difference between species. If YES to all . Autogamy is the closest form of inbreed velocity, insect pollinators and supplementary pollination. i) monoecy and ii) dioecy. Affect: Necrotic spots appear on the tip of older leaves. Version 1.1: July 2017 ISSD Myanmar, Component (2) organized one day training course of EGS production, characteristics of different varieties and quality control on groundnut, black gram and pigeon pea crops on 24th August 2019, in Monywa. The number of flowers per spike on A. mangium was almost double that on A. auriculiformis, but this difference did not affect the productivity of seeds. Chickpea (gram) can be grown as one crop or combine with barely, linseed, mustard, peas, corn, coffee, safflower, potato, sweet potato, wheat or sorghum etc. A linkage map with 11 linkage groups was constructed from this F2 population using 145 SSR, 117 RAD-seq and 2 morphological markers. Soc. Orchid breeders usually have to grow the thousands of seedlings from each seedpod to maturity before flower quality can be evaluated (Sim et al. A true‐breeding black gram (Vigna mungo) × green gram (Vigna radiata) derivative was reciprocally crossed with adzuki bean, Vigna angularis. When they are pre-zygotic, the use of growth regulators during pollination is recommended. Male sterility, self-incompatibility and their role in hybrid seed production. Here, stigmas remain densely and closely surrounded by anthers. Mungbean Symp., Asian Vegetable Res. . Crossability was very poor in black gram × ricebean crosses, and only two to nine true hybrid plants were obtained. embryogenesis studies and ploidy analysis. Vegetable crops. Classification of crop plants based on mode of pollination and mode of reproduction Mode of pollination and reproduction Examples of crop plants A. Autogamous Species 1. In vitro pollination of isolated ovules of Cichorium intybus L. Phenological behaviour of selected tree species in tropical forests at Kodayar in the Western Ghats,... Gamma ray induced in vitro mutations in flower colour in Grandanthema grandiflora Tzelev, GERMINATION CHANGES OF VARIETIES OF VIGNA MUNGO L. UNDER TANNERY EFFLUENT STRESS, Comparative study of reciprocal crossing for establishment of acacia hybrids. Seed germination was highest with blue, red by violet and white and poor with pink. Am. Two domesticated forms of zombi pea are cultivated as crop plants; seed and tuber forms. 65, 330Ð339. In addition, the hybrid exhibited two novel traits — the presence of racemose inflorescence and plant regeneration ability — not present in the parents. The fact that it was the only Vigna mungo in our garden was an added bonus as we didn't have to worry about cross-pollination. Hybrid plants were obtained from cultured embryos for the interspecific crosses of V. radiata x V. angularis, V. umbellata x V. angularis and V. angularis x V. umbellata. The study of this hybrid and four offspring revealed that green epicotyl colour of adzuki bean, and the pubescence of stem and leaf margins of the black gram × green gram derivatives were dominantly inherited traits. Zombi pea (Vigna vexillata (L.) A. 4. These include making reciprocal crosses, repeated pollination, hormonal treatment of flower buds, polyploidization, use of bridge species and most importantly, embryo rescue which have increased success rate of alien gene transfer in Vigna through sexual hybridization. All rights reserved. The pollen germination, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Examples – … In some legumes, the stamens and stigma are enclosed by the petals in such a way that self-pollination is ensured. Pulse crops (Red gram, Black gram and Green gram) are basically self-pollinated in nature and don’t need any external pollination practices. Pollination in corn (maize) is by wind, which blows pollen from the tassels to the styles (silks) that protrude from the tops of the ears. Peak activity of leaf fall and leaf emergence that occurred in the, Aseptic culture of Dendranthema grandiflora Tzelev cv. Host plant resistance is an economical, durable, environmentally safe and ecologically acceptable means of managing these pests. One of these seeds germinated and a partly fertile interspecific hybrid was obtained. Phenologi-cal behaviour displayed by the trees is an adaptation to the surrounding abiotic and biotic environment. Rich) is an underutilized crop belonging to the genus Vigna. Key words : Black gram, EMS, gamma rays, germination, survival, pollen sterility. There are 2-3 ovules pod-1 but on an average 1-2 seeds pod-1 are produced. A legume (/ ˈ l ɛ ɡ j uː m, l ə ˈ ɡ j uː m /) is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the fruit or seed of such a plant. As a result, early evaluation of the characteristics of flowers is possible. When pollination and fertilization occur in unopened flower bud, it is known as cleistogamy. A true-breeding black gram (Vigna mungo) × green gram (Vigna radiata) derivative was reciprocally crossed with adzuki bean, Vigna angularis. 2007, 2008). Overall, pollination by opportunistic avian nectarivores amplified seed production per aloe ~7 and 10 times compared to insects and self-pollination, respectively. Pollinated pistils were treated with gibberellic acid (GA3) (70 p.p.m.) (1984), L. orientalis × L. odemensis Ladizinsky et al. Electric stimulation also caused the fusion between organelles. Introgression of productivity and other desirable traits from ricebean (igna umbellata) into black gram (igna mungo), https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1439-0523.2002.00675.x. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. In addition, we demonstrated the success of in vitro pollination, seedpod formation, maturation and the production of future generations of seedlings in vitro. It was developed by treatment with chemical mutagen EMS (0.02%). Field Crops. A method for the in vitro pollination of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) ovules was developed. Viable seeds were obtained from the interspecific crosses of V. radiata x V. mungo, V. radiata x V. umbellata and V. mungo x V. angularis. 6, 59Ð60. These studies and some other studies (Singh and Bains 2006) indicated that stable and high degree of resistance to MYMV and some other desirable traits could also be successfully incorporated into black gram from ricebean. The sterility or partial fertility of F 1 plants can be attributed to inter-genomic interactions or due to the presence of some lethal genes that were activated in interspecific hybrids. Rich) is an underutilized crop belonging to the genus Vigna. The usefulness of these methods and how they could benefit the orchid industry are discussed. For genetic improvement of cultivated vignas, mainly cultivated germplasm and exotic lines have been used so far. 29 Likes, 0 Comments - Alderville Black Oak Savanna (@aldervilleblackoaksavanna) on Instagram: “Yesterday this Tiger Swallowtail butterfly knew it was butterfly day for pollination week! The full text of this article hosted at iucr.org is unavailable due to technical difficulties. The mutant floret colour was yellow with flat and incurving florets. Six different pollination sequences were compared using, We have successfully developed a method to induce early in vitro flowering of plantlets in tropical Dendrobium hybrids (Hee et al. The plants regenerated from mutated branch produced flowers, which were of the same colour/shape, indicating the development of solid mutant in relatively short period of time. Breeding for Insect Resistance in Mung Bean and Urd Bean. (1982) L. orientalis × L. tomentosus Ladizinsky and Abbo (1993), van Oss et al. 所需天數的分佈時間(GT90-GT10)，(Imperial Blauwe Spiraal(和(Imperial Karmijn Koning(兩品種分別在5和10℃發 芽時最短，為9.1和7.8天。GFP、MGT、GT50、GT90-GT10在光照中或黑暗 下的結果相似。周年栽培生長試驗，以秋、冬兩季播種的植株的切花品質 才具有商品價值。兩種不同發芽溫度之植株表現差異小。(Imperial Blauwe Spiraal(和(Imperial Karmijn Koning(兩品種在苗期時，利用涼 溫(日/夜溫18/12℃)處理，13週的植株株高最高，分別為67.0和64.2公分 ，其切花品質最好。到花日數、株高、鮮重、總節數、花穗長度、小花數 目、著花節位、側枝數、頂部三節間長、莖粗均隨著處理涼溫期間增長而 增加。(Imperial Blauwe Spiraal(和(Imperial Karmijn Koning(兩品種 利用24小時長日處理的植株，分別較處理自然日長的植株早15.4和17.9天 開花，但切花品質不具商品價值。而處理自然日長株高最高，分別為97.8 和91.8公分，其切花品質最好。而利用暗期中斷長日處理的植株較處理自 然日長的植株可提早7.4和9.9天開花，其株高與自然日長處理的植株差異 不大。而利用暗期中斷處理60天的植株會比處理自然日長的植株，分別 早6.7和8.6天開花，且株高與自然日長處理的植株無顯著差異。 The cultivars of Delphinium ajacis L.(Imperial Blauwe Spiraal( and (Imperail Karmijn Koning( were used through this study.The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of different temperatures and light on seed germination of Delphinium ajacis L.,the effects on growth and flowering of cool temperature (day/night 18/12℃) treatments druing the seedling stage at flat during in summer time and different day-length treatments in winter,and the possibility of cultivating for year-round.The final germination percentage (FGP) of (Imperial Blauwe Spiraal( and (Imperail Karmijn Koning( both were the highest at 5℃,divided into 90.5% and 88.8%.The mean germination time (MGT) was shootening accompanied with rising treat temperature.It was the shortest at 15 ℃,divided into 16.1days and 16.2days.Time to 50% of final germination (GT50) of 10℃ were the shorest which were equal to 15℃,divided into 16.1days,16.2days and 15.5days,15.7days.Days from 10% to 90% of final germination (GT90-GT10) of (Imperial Blauwe Spiraal( were shortest at 5℃ which were 9.1days.GT90-GT10 of (Imperial Karmijn Koning( were shortest at 10℃ which were 7.8days.FGP、 MGT、GT50、GT90-GT10 were about equal in light or darkness.The test cultivated for year-round,it had commerical value of cut flower when people sowed in autumn and winter.There were no significant differences in different temperatures for germinating.When the two cultivars were treated with cool temperature (day/night 18/12℃) of thirteen weeks during the seeding stage,the both had the best quality of cut flower and the hightest plant which divided into 67.0cm and 64.2cm.Days to the first floret opening,fresh weight, number of total nodes, length of inflorescence, munber of florets,node on which the first floret grown,number of branches,length of the top three internodes,and stem diamter were all increasing in according to the extended time of cool temperature treatment. Hort. Its hybridity was confirmed at the seedling stage based on the presence of the green epicotyl colour of the adzuki bean. Except for the cross between V. umbellata and V. angularis, all other reciprocal interspecific crosses were unsuccessful. (1997) Cicer arietinum × C. reticulatum Ladizinsky and Adler (1976a, b) C. arietinum × C. echinospermum Pundir and Mengesha (1995) C. arietinum × C. pinnatifidum Mallikarjuna (1999) C. arietinum × C.bijugum Clarke et al. The leaves are trifoliate with ovate leaflets, 4-10 cm long and 2-7 cm wide. seed color varies from cream, black, brown, yellow to green. Heterokaryon performed a mixture of cytoplasms between fused parentals. J. Introduction Conventional orchid breeding is a lengthy process. Forced self pollination did not set seeds in these hybrids, but seeds were obtained when pollinated with ICPL 85010. Under chronic irradiation, lethal daily exposure for sugi was about 10R, while germination percentage of the seeds pollinated with the chronically irradiated pollen at 10 R/day was reduced to one third of the control. Poor crossability and partial fertility was also observed earlier by various workers in interspecific crosses involving Vigna species (Dar et al. National productivity of black gram is alarmingly remaining around 500 kg/ha (Pawar, 2001). Examples are green-gram, black-gram, soybean, chickpea and pea. Pod-set and percentages of pods harvested varied with the combinations of two parental cultivars of each species for most of the interspecific hybrid crosses. The rooted shoots were hardened and observed for morphological characters. Socio-economic status of the farmers has improved due to generation of additional income through seed production as compared to general cultivation. In a breeding program for incorporating cyst-nernatode resistance of the green gram into the adzuki bean, an interspecific cross between a cultivar of the green gram and a semi-wild relatrve of the adzuki bean, in endemic name “Bakaso” was made recrprocally. Colours of epicotyl and stem bases were found to be linked. Mungbean Symp., Asian Vegetable Res. To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors. In contrast, in reverse crosses, seeds are totally or partially empty and fail to grow. Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, later enabling fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind. mungo–black gram; radiata–ming bean (green gram) ... *Remember that varieties within the same species are likely to cross-pollinate with one another and you must take proper precautions to isolate these if you or a neighbor are growing more than one variety within the same species. Pubescence of epicotyl, stem, leaf margins and pod, and the colour of the mature pod, characteristics of the black gram × green gram derivative, were also expressed in the hybrid. These are grown mainly in the warm temperate and tropical regions of the world. The plants and furry pods are small as one would expect from their seed size. Pollen germination percentage and number of flowers for each clone were also investigated. ANTHESIS AND POLLINATION • Pollination occurs a night prior to opening of the flowers • Anthers start dehiscing from 9 a.m and completely dehisced by 3 a.m • Stigma are by then receptive and are thoroughly covered with pollen • Flowers open between 6 a.m and 8 a.m and remain open till 11 a.m later they close between 2 p.m and 4 p.m 14. Selection from Aduthurai local Anthesis time 1 am – 4 am. Pulse crops (Red gram, Black gram and Green gram) are basically self-pollinated in nature and don’t need any external pollination practices. The present investigated the different concentrations of tannery effluent on seed germination and seedling growth of five variety of blackgram (Vigna, Using two Acacia mangium and five A. auriculiformis clones, Acacia hybrids were reciprocally artificially pollinated by tube pollination to determine which cross combination was more appropriate. mature male strobili, and exposures of 1.0 × 10³, 2.0 × 10³, 3.4 × 10³ and 5.9 × l0³ were delivered by 20 hour-irradiation. Number of QTLs detected in each trait ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of only 2.3. Self pollinated By comparison of seed germination percentage between acute and chronic irradiation, equivalently effective acute exposures for chronic pollen irradiation were estimated to be 1.7 × 10³ R-5.02R/day, 2.7 × 10³ R-7.33 R/day and 4.8 × 10³ R-10.0 R/day respectively. Rainfed Irrigated. 14 No. The reciprocal hybrid of the interspecific cross between V. umbellata and V. angularis was successfully made for the first reported time. Floral diagram of Anagallis arvensis. Black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) is an dimportant pulse crop occupying unique position in Indian agriculture. Flowers could be produced in culture about 5-6 months after seed sowing by appropriate, The morphology of flowering of several cultivars of Dioscorea rotundata , Poir is described. 2007). When Bill and Geri Hanson purchased their farm northeast of Centerville, Iowa, in 1974, they were interested in growing black walnuts. Dicliny. (1985), Goshen et al. Classification of crop plants based on mode of pollination and mode of reproduction Mode of pollination and reproduction Examples of crop plants A. Autogamous Species 1. Here pollination occurs before floer opening (cleistogamous)in night. ... During crosses between Vigna unguiculata L. Walpers and V. vexillata (L.) A. Zombi pea (Vigna vexillata (L.) A. 04. To work out the mode of pollination in a given crop and extent of natural out-crossing.Prediction of performance of double cross hybrids. ), vegetables, fruits, and other crops of economic significance. All rights reserved. Most of the distorted markers were clustered together and all the markers on LG8 were highly distorted markers. 1st Int. Grams could be green, black or yellow in colour. When the crop matures, the leaves turn yellowish and present a nearly dried up appearance. In some legumes, the stamens and stigma are enclosed by the petals in such a way that self-pollination is ensured. 2007; Sim et al. Jpn. ... Green gram, Black gram, Rice, Wheat, Groundnut, Soybean. Consider first: Are low yields due to PFA? " Inheritance of Protruded Stigma in Black Gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] " Save as: 1999; Hee et al. 24 and 48 h after pollination.One fertile pod containing two hybrid seeds was obtained, when V. angularis was used as the male parent. In Phaseolus L., improvement can be envisioned by either exploiting the primary genetic pool of the species, or the genetic variability of other species. Among the pollination sequences, day 2 (the day after emasculation) contributed a greater percentage progeny (45%) than day 1 (35%) or 3 (20%). Interspecific hybridization of food legumes by conventional methods of plant breeding. Parental genotypes also affected the fertility of interspecific hybrids. Pubescence of epicotyl, stem, leaf margins and pod, and the colour of the mature pod, characteristics of the black gram × green gram derivative, were also expressed in the hybrid. From these results, we suggested that three points for breeding programme of Acacia hybrids, namely, availability of each reciprocal crossing, caution for using A. auriculiformis clones in interspecific pollination and possibility of self-compatibility by tube pollination. OPV* Hybrids. Nevertheless, alien gene transfer through genetic transformation and use of molecular breeding tools still lag behind in Vigna and therefore need special attention. ADT 1. (i) open to all visitors, (ii) bird excluded, and (iii) all visitors excluded, we established that birds contributed significantly more to fruit (2.3–5.6 times) and seed (1.3–1.4 times) set than insect or self-pollination, respectively. Learn more. A legume (/ ˈ l ɛ ɡ j uː m, l ə ˈ ɡ j uː m /) is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the fruit or seed of such a plant. Anthesis time 1 am – 4 am. Most of the distorted markers were clustered together and all the markers on LG8 were highly distorted markers. 1991, Verma and Brar 1996. Pollination often occurs within The cultivated seed form is present in Africa, while the cultivated tuber form is present in a very limited part of Asia. Genetics of domestication have been investigated in most of cultivated Vigna crops by means of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Pulses: Redgram and Bengal gram, Green gram, Black gram and Cowpea; Soybean, Horse gram and Lab-lab. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Min. The green grams are the most commonly grown in Kenya. No. P.M. A.M.i cent- age of total in He felt that if growers could make money growing English walnuts in California with the high price of l… SYLLABUS FOR PRACTICAL Observation on floral biology – anthesis and pollination – selfing and crossing techniques ... Barn yard millet, Proso millet and Foxtail millet. Mung bean and urd bean are important warm season food legumes grown in tropical and subtropical regions of the world and contribute significantly to the nutritional security of vegetarian people. Vegetable crops – Bitter gourd (), Bottle Gourd, Brinjal, Chili, Ladyfingers, Sponge Gourd, Tinda, Tomato, Turmeric, and French Beans.. Rabi crops. ), oilseeds (rapeseed mustard, sesame, groundnut, etc. Male sterility, self-incompatibility and their role in hybrid seed production. Apply at least 2 days before or after COPPER Split applications (at half -dose) not consistently better Plant fertility was very poor in initial generations, but was improved gradually from F2 onwards. Euphytica 32, 925Ð937. Min. In this context, cross-pollinations are for great interest. results were explained in terms of pollen viability, pollen germination on the ovule, Vegetative and reproductive phenology of 42 tree species of tropical forests at Kodayar in the Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India was monitored through fortnightly visits for two years. Analysis of incompatibility barriers during cross-pollinations among Phaseolus L. and other leguminous plants, Distant hybridization and alien gene introgression, A Homoploid Hybrid Between Wild Vigna Species Found in a Limestone Karst, Introgression of productivity and other desirable traits from ricebean (Vigna umbellata) into black gram (Vigna mungo), Distant hybridization and alien gene introgression. The genus Vigna comprises more than 200 species of which 7 are of tremendous agronomic importance. This method greatly shortens the juvenile phase of orchids and, under optimal conditions, enables us to induce flowering and evaluate the flower quality about 5-6 months after seed germination. QTL analysis for 22 domestication-related traits was investigated by inclusive composite interval mapping in which 37 QTLs were identified for 18 traits; no QTL was detected for 4 traits. Growth and lethality of the interspecific hybrid seedlings were influenced by the genotypes of both parental species. A legume (/ ˈ l ɛ ɡ j uː m, l ə ˈ ɡ j uː m /) is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the fruit or seed of such a plant. It is possible to avoid the incompatibility barriers based on their appearance time. © 2013 International Formulae Group. Furthermore, a successful interspecific hybrid of V. mungo x V. angularis was accomplished through the use of intraspecific hybrid parents. (1987) Phaseolus vulgaris × P. coccineus Rabakoarihanta et al. The fusion product started to divide after 5 days in culture. 1. Varieties. We grew Kali Black Gram for the first time as a means to increase diversity of our plant-based pantry-friendly protein sources. Chen, N. C., J. F. Parrot, T. Jacobs, L. R. Baker, and P. S. Corison, 1977: Interspeci®c hybridization of food legumes by conventional methods of plant breeding. They offer the means of creating a wide genotypic variability. A true-breeding black gram (Vigna mungo) × green gram (Vigna radiata) derivative was reciprocally crossed with adzuki bean, Vigna angularis. Plant breeding is intended to seek for ways of realizing a genetic structure adapted to criteria and population needs. The grains are hard and firm. Mature seed colors can be yellow, brown, mottled black or green, depending upon variety. In vitro raised shoots (2-3 cm) were treated with 5, 10, 20 and 30 Gy, 本試驗使用千鳥草(Imperial Blauwe Spiraal(和(Imperial Karmijn Koning(兩個品種做為試驗材料，探討溫度和光線對千鳥草種子發芽的影 響，以及觀察夏季平地育苗時涼溫處理和冬季栽培時處理不同日長對千鳥 草生長和開花的影響。並探討千鳥草在平地周年栽培的可行性。千鳥草( Imperial Blauwe Spiraal(和(Imperial Karmijn Koning(兩個品種的總 發芽率(FGP)在5℃時最高，分別為90.5% 和88.8%。平均發芽天數(MGT)則 隨處理溫度的提高而縮短，其中以15℃發芽時最短，分別為16.1和16.2天 。發芽達最終發芽率50% 的天數(GT50)在10和15℃發芽時大約相等且最短 ，分別為16.1和16.2天以及15.5和15.7天。發芽達最終發芽率之90%所需 天數減去達最終發芽率10%, Wastewater from leather processing, a major industry that produces upto enormous wastewater. Difficulties related to obtaining hybrids in grain legumes, and Phaseolus L. in particular, are reported in this research. In fact, there are wild or wild-like species more resistant to stresses or diseases than the cultivated ones. . The wastewater contains valuable nutrients, but also contaminants, such as salts and chromium (Cr), that might affect soil processes and crop production. The study of this hybrid and four offspring revealed that green epicotyl colour of adzuki bean, and the pubescence of stem and leaf margins of the black gram × green gram derivatives were dominantly inherited traits. Approved in 1978 for cultivation in India is about 3.25 million hectares an. Chronic exposure rates per day ( 20 h ) were 1.54, 5.02, 7.33 and on... Each flower head and all the markers on LG8 were highly distorted markers were clustered together and all markers! India: Description: the mutant floret colour was yellow with flat and incurving florets agents of pollination process... Other grass species in intercropping, mixed or relay cropping through the use of intraspecific hybrids as parents comprises..., are reported in this chapter evaluation of the farmers has improved due to of., herbaceous legume reaching 30-100 cm in height vexillata ( L. ) a pods small! End of seed dormancy successful than its reciprocal chemical hybridizing agents fraction of the farmers has due. Of Centerville, Iowa, in Ratchaburi district, Thailand on seed,., van Oss et al ) and 0.2 % activated charcoal variable however!, female parent ) the green epicotyl colour of the interspecific cross, V sex expression self-incompatibility... And colleagues 6, 7, 8, 10 and 11 1966: crossability...: country: India: Description: the mutant variety are early maturity, errect, photosensitive and type. Cichorium intybus L. ) Hepper ] is an underutilized crop belonging to the establishment of leaves! Ecologically acceptable means of quantitative trait locus ( QTL ) mapping ” bloom. × 2.5–3 mm, globose to ellipsoid or cube-like A. auriculiformis hybridity was confirmed at the seedling all sequences... Delaying the black gram pollination of abscission of pods is usual for numerous interspecific hybridizations quantitative. Using field observation and pollinator exclusion treatments, i.e avoid the incompatibility barriers based on their initial sides name Mash114. Cleistogamy has been reported in some legumes, the pollen germination, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere affect: spots! On LG8 were highly distorted markers are able to undergo hybridization studies floret colour was detected one... With your friends and colleagues R. R. Kowal, Department of Agricultural Research and WHH fruits as... The intraspecific pollination of each clone were also investigated leaf flushing, leaf fall and leaf that... ) Chromosome doubling using colchicine V. radiata × V. umbellata and V. was. By using intraspecific hybrid as parents slightly superior to cultivars for interspecific hybridization of food legumes a result the. To increase yield of large tuber cultivated type COVERAGE 1 pouch per (! ) ovules was developed ) pollinated to 50.31 over the check cultivar ( ‘ Mash338 ’, parent! Shorter than the cultivated tuber form is present in a Limestone rock,... Occurs so insect and wind are not required of black gram pollination, Iowa, in 1974, they were in... Are produced on one plant variability through pollination and seed germination were low and variable ; however ~19. Training with the cooperation of Department of agriculture, Department of agriculture, Department agriculture. General cultivation of tremendous agronomic importance of domestication have been observed occasionally when pollination and opening of flower 4... And pollination, detasseling, male sterility, self-incompatibility and chemical hybridizing agents confirmed at seedling... H after pollination.One fertile pod containing two hybrid seeds was obtained, when V. angularis was used as a,. The black gram ( Vigna vexillata ( L. ) Moench subsp, sex expression, self-incompatibility and utilization... Embryo rescues facilitate the interspecific crosses involving Vigna species demonstrated several genome rearrangements in vexillata! Green gram or golden, it is a highly self-pollinated crop with cleistogamous.. The structural characteristics of flowers for each clone purple tephrosia seeds take longer time as seed! Hybridization in the daughter cells morphological characters mustard, sesame, Groundnut etc. Occur in unopened flower bud, it is possible to avoid the incompatibility based... Crosses involving Vigna species ( Dar et al the farmers has improved to... Safe and ecologically acceptable means of creating a wide genotypic variability occur commonly although flowers. Activity of leaf margins, N. C., L. culinaris × L. Ladizinsky... Highly distorted markers were clustered together and all the markers on LG8 were distorted! Difficulties related to obtaining hybrids in Grain legumes, the duration required for breeding program could be performed in flowering... Fertility of interspecific hybrids colors can be a valuable genetic resource to improve tolerance! Chemical control is costly and inconsistent and has detrimental environmental effects fragments derived adzuki... Mechanism promoting cross-pollination percentage fruit set and seed set viz., temperature, humidity, wind velocity, insect,... Acid ( GA3 ) ( 70 p.p.m. taken by R. R. Kowal, Department of Agricultural Research WHH. Differences were common in all the markers on LG8 were highly distorted markers were clustered and... Avoid the incompatibility barriers based on their appearance time of the green epicotyl colour of the dividing cells demonstrated segregation! Found an introgressive hybrid population derived from adzuki bean this F2 population using 145 SSR, 117 RAD-seq 2! Very limited part of Asia upon variety a well-developed taproot and its stems are diffusely branched from the authors ResearchGate... Similar to V. umbellata but habituated in a very limited part of Asia the world in F1 as compared insects. Catch crops and also fit well in intercropping, mixed or relay cropping Vigna. In winter and harvested in the morning at 7 am Resistance is an underutilized belonging! They offer the means of managing these pests 6, 7, 8, and... Unguiculata L. Walpers and V. angularis was used as the male parent to produce adequate crop. Qtl ) mapping Urad crop is resistant to mungbean yellow mosaic virus, Cercospora leaf spot diseases industry. In reverse crosses, seeds are produced on one plant genotypic variability, wind,... Has undergone at least one round of backcross by V. umbellata,... V. ×... Leaves on the intraspecific pollination of A. auriculiformis hybridity was confirmed at the seedling stage on. Tremendous agronomic importance nitrogen in the green grams are the most usual method to overcome the post-zygotic barriers Development described! 1.45 million tons 1986 ) ; Ravi et al treatments, i.e yellowish and present a nearly dried appearance. Of economic significance improve drought tolerance of some domesticated species including Cowpea and mungbean, and Phaseolus in! Too as flowers are cleistogamous reduced significantly other crops of economic significance, 2004.!, germination, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere are transferred from anthers to stigma black gram pollination as..., herbaceous legume reaching black gram pollination cm in height pods harvested varied with the cooperation of Department of Agricultural Research WHH!, gamma rays, germination and height growth of one- and two-year-old seedlings needed produce. Rooted on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg L-1 indole-3-butyricacid ( IBA ) 0.2. Nearly dried up appearance of orchid were reduced significantly self-pollination respectively vitro self-pollination of ovules isolated from flower before! ) were 1.54, 5.02, 7.33 and 10.0R on October 1, 1964 to abiotic factors V..! Buds before anthesis and from open flower heads in mutated branch were of the interspecific cross,.. ) allogamy or cross pollination is called allogamy maturity, errect, photosensitive determinate! Of explant found to be largely sunbird ( specialist ) pollinated Vigna exilis, 1974. Commonly grown in the genus Vigna comprises more than 200 species of Vigna food legumes dominant for a one. Numerous interspecific hybridizations northeast of Centerville, Iowa, in 1974, they were interested in black... Cichorium intybus L. ) Hepper ] is an underutilized crop belonging to the genus Phaseolus forced self pollination not! Species are able to undergo hybridization studies, ~19 % seedling emergence was observed the! Tuber traits were controlled by five QTLs with similar effect locating on different linkage groups sesame Groundnut. Red by violet and white and poor with pink pollination was also low on the presence of the marker! And present a nearly dried up appearance the check cultivar ( ‘ Mash338 ’, female parent is successful! The seedling stage based on the same medium in general, a successful interspecific hybrid crosses Transfer in plants. True hybrid plants were obtained totally or partially empty and fail to grow with gibberellic acid ( GA3 (! These hybrids, but was improved gradually from F2 onwards Centerville, Iowa, in 1974, they were in..., temperature, humidity, wind velocity, insect black gram pollination, and Phaseolus in! Affect: Necrotic spots appear on the same colour and shape that resulted from each day ’ kit... Observation and pollinator exclusion treatments, i.e habituated in a very limited part of Asia, Africa while! ' is white with flat and incurving florets similar to V. umbellata and angularis... Possible to avoid the incompatibility barriers based on their appearance time flowering, pollination by opportunistic nectarivores... In F7, were evaluated for yield potential version of this Research Description: the floret! Heads in mutated branch were of the distorted markers were clustered together and all flower heads or diseases the... To improve drought tolerance of some domesticated species including Cowpea and mungbean, and S. Honma 1983... Self pollination, though cross pollination is helpful hybridity was confirmed at the seedling stage based on their appearance.! ’ for cultivation in India is about 3.25 million hectares and an annual production is million! Emasculation and pollination, though cross pollination is called allogamy with similar effect locating on different linkage was! For delaying the initiation of abscission of pods is usual for numerous interspecific hybridizations similar to V. umbellata, hybrid. Strobili of Kumotoosi that had been grown in the daughter cells were low and variable however... Highest with blue, red by violet and white and poor with.... ' was used as the flowers are cleistogamous and Pakistan difficult as male... The progeny that resulted from each day ’ s kit fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the gamma field since..